Watch this. You may think you are a failure.

let go all, and all’ll let you go. Just keep trusting and moving. you are already near.

Continue reading “Watch this. You may think you are a failure.”

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Basic Terms in Sound Engineering

Basic Terms in Sound Engineering

3-to-1 Rule: – When using multiple microphones, the distance between microphones should be at least 3 times the distance from each microphone to its intended sound source Continue reading “Basic Terms in Sound Engineering”

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Language, Cognition and Culture Language and perception

 What is verbal hygiene?

It is a thought–provoking term, used by Deborah Cameron describe how People respond to the ‘urge to meddle in matters of language’. It covers a wide range of activities, from writing letters to Editors complaining about the ‘deterioration’ and ‘abuse’ Continue reading “Language, Cognition and Culture Language and perception”

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  • 75
    CHAPTER 3- Language maintenance and Shift Language shift: it happens when the language of the wider society (majority) displaces the minority mother tongue language over time in migrant communities or in communities under military occupation. Therefore when language shift occurs, it shifts most of the time towards the language of…
    Tags: language
  • 54
    Description of Sociolinguistic Hudson defines Sociolinguistics as “the study of language in relation to society.” He says that Sociolinguistics is a recognised part of most language or linguistic courses at university level. It has existed many years before 1960s and is recently noticed to shed more light on the nature…
    Tags: language
  • 48
    Language and dialect Hudson tries to differentiate language from dialect but it turned out to be confusion as usual whether to consider it as a technical term or as untrained people see it. It could also be examined as part of a culture to make distinction between ‘languages’ and dialect’.…
    Tags: language
  • 47
    Introduction Semantics can be observed in both sign and sound languages. That is to say that language analysis should also include the language of the deaf. If the expression “He is awake” is used, the hearer should understand what ‘he’ means (a male entity) and who the ‘he’ is. In…
    Tags: discourse, analysis, language
  • 46
    The Future of Most Nigerian Languages: on the way to extinction Languages go  into extinction for various reasons which may include dying of all the speakers of the language, domination of a more preferred language etc. Such languages are called endangered languages. This is not a new issue in language…
    Tags: language

CHAPTER 11- Speech Functions, Politeness and Functions of Speech

1- Referential function: to convey information and this is done through different forms of speech, such as declarative or interrogative statements. Continue reading “CHAPTER 11- Speech Functions, Politeness and Functions of Speech”

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  • 41
    CHAPTER 6-Regional and Social Dialects - Accent: accents are distinguished from each other by pronunciation. - Dialects: linguistic varieties which are distinguishable by their vocabulary, grammar and pronunciation. * Examples of different regional dialects: Example one: in British English: pavement, boot, bonnet, petrol, baggage. But in American English: sidewalk, trunk,…
    Tags: women, social, men, forms, language
  • 39
    Language Change * Variation and Change: the cause behind language change is the variation of use in the areas of pronunciation and vocabulary.  Post-vocal |r| its spread and its status: In many parts of England and Wales, Standard English has lost the pronunciation post-vocal r. The loss of r began…
    Tags: language, social, speech
  • 36
    CHAPTER 3- Language maintenance and Shift Language shift: it happens when the language of the wider society (majority) displaces the minority mother tongue language over time in migrant communities or in communities under military occupation. Therefore when language shift occurs, it shifts most of the time towards the language of…
    Tags: language
  • 34
    The Future of Most Nigerian Languages: on the way to extinction Languages go  into extinction for various reasons which may include dying of all the speakers of the language, domination of a more preferred language etc. Such languages are called endangered languages. This is not a new issue in language…
    Tags: language
  • 32
    THE CONCEPT OF LANGUAGE Language serves as a channel through which ideas thoughts and emotions are expressed. It is the human ability to acquire and use complex systems of communication - a property of the community.  Language like any other concept has several definitions. This is of course, due to…
    Tags: language

Language Change

Language Change

* Variation and Change: the cause behind language change is the variation of use in the areas of pronunciation and vocabulary. Continue reading “Language Change”

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  • 52
    summary of Janet Holmes Sociolinguistics: CHAPTER 1-What do Sociolinguists do? Sociolinguistics: a term that refers to the study of the relationship between language and society, and how language is used in multilingual speech communities.  What aspects of language are Sociolinguists interested in? Sociolinguists are interested in explaining why people speak…
    Tags: social, language, status, speech
  • 51
    CHAPTER 3- Language maintenance and Shift Language shift: it happens when the language of the wider society (majority) displaces the minority mother tongue language over time in migrant communities or in communities under military occupation. Therefore when language shift occurs, it shifts most of the time towards the language of…
    Tags: language
  • 49
    THE CONCEPT OF STYLE Style has been an object of study from ancient times. Aristotle, Cicero, Demetrius and Quintilian treated style as the proper adornment of thought. In this view, which prevailed throughout the Renaissance period, devices of style can be catalogued. The essayist or orator is expected to frame…
    Tags: style, language
  • 46
    Description of Sociolinguistic Hudson defines Sociolinguistics as “the study of language in relation to society.” He says that Sociolinguistics is a recognised part of most language or linguistic courses at university level. It has existed many years before 1960s and is recently noticed to shed more light on the nature…
    Tags: language
  • 46
    Style as a Product of Context Although many people relate style to choice, some scholars maintain that style is not a matter of choice or deviation, rather it is the result of the milieu in which the author originates and the context in which the work is produced. The environment…
    Tags: style, social, language

CHAPTER 8- Ethnicity and Social Networks by Janet Holmes

CHAPTER 8- Ethnicity and Social Networks

* It is often possible for individuals to signal their ethnicity by the language they choose to use. Even when a complete conversation in an ethnic language is not possible, people may use short phrases, Continue reading “CHAPTER 8- Ethnicity and Social Networks by Janet Holmes”

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  • 44
    Global and specific statements In this chapter Hudson examines the extent to which it is possible to describe the relation of language to society in terms of global linguistic categories such as languages and dialects and global social categories like communities. How should a global linguistic category like language X…
    Tags: language, community, linguistic, variety, people, social, items, english
  • 39
    Learners of English Language as second language  Non-native  speakers (ENGLISH AS SECOND LANGUAGE) usually really wish to sound very much like native speakers in their accent, probably to go with the saying that “what is worth doing is worth doing well. The prestige that goes with speaking English certainly also…
    Tags: english, language, speak, pronunciation, person, british
  • 32
    Sociolinguistics: a term that refers to the study of the relationship between language and society, and how language is used in multilingual speech communities. What aspects of language are Sociolinguists interested in? Sociolinguists are interested in explaining why people speak differently in different social contexts. And the effect of social…
    Tags: social, language, variety, janet, holmes
  • 30
    Language Change * Variation and Change: the cause behind language change is the variation of use in the areas of pronunciation and vocabulary.  Post-vocal |r| its spread and its status: In many parts of England and Wales, Standard English has lost the pronunciation post-vocal r. The loss of r began…
    Tags: language, social, influence, group

CHAPTER 6-Regional and Social Dialects (Janet Holmes)

CHAPTER 6-Regional and Social Dialects

– Accent: accents are distinguished from each other by pronunciation.

– Dialects: linguistic varieties which are distinguishable by their vocabulary, grammar and pronunciation. Continue reading “CHAPTER 6-Regional and Social Dialects (Janet Holmes)”

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  • 45
    Global and specific statements In this chapter Hudson examines the extent to which it is possible to describe the relation of language to society in terms of global linguistic categories such as languages and dialects and global social categories like communities. How should a global linguistic category like language X…
    Tags: language, social, english
  • 43
    CHAPTER 3- Language maintenance and Shift Language shift: it happens when the language of the wider society (majority) displaces the minority mother tongue language over time in migrant communities or in communities under military occupation. Therefore when language shift occurs, it shifts most of the time towards the language of…
    Tags: language
  • 41
    1- Referential function: to convey information and this is done through different forms of speech, such as declarative or interrogative statements. - Declarative statements (After this semester, I'm going to visit London) - Interrogative statements using Wh-questions (what is your name?) - Interrogative statements using yes/no questions (do like London?)…
    Tags: social, men, language, women, forms
  • 40
    Language Change * Variation and Change: the cause behind language change is the variation of use in the areas of pronunciation and vocabulary.  Post-vocal |r| its spread and its status: In many parts of England and Wales, Standard English has lost the pronunciation post-vocal r. The loss of r began…
    Tags: language, social
  • 37
    The Future of Most Nigerian Languages: on the way to extinction Languages go  into extinction for various reasons which may include dying of all the speakers of the language, domination of a more preferred language etc. Such languages are called endangered languages. This is not a new issue in language…
    Tags: language

Language maintenance and Shift (Janet Holmes)

CHAPTER 3- Language maintenance and Shift

Language shift: it happens when the language of the wider society (majority) displaces the minority mother tongue language over time in migrant communities or in communities under military occupation Continue reading “Language maintenance and Shift (Janet Holmes)”

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  • 82
    LOAN WORDS According to Wikipedia, a loan word is a word adopted from one language (the donor language) and incorporated into a different, recipient language without translation. A loan word is distinguished from a claque, which is a word or phrase whose meaning or idiom is adopted from another language…
    Tags: language
  • 78
    Language and dialect Hudson tries to differentiate language from dialect but it turned out to be confusion as usual whether to consider it as a technical term or as untrained people see it. It could also be examined as part of a culture to make distinction between ‘languages’ and dialect’.…
    Tags: language
  • 78
    Description of Sociolinguistic Hudson defines Sociolinguistics as “the study of language in relation to society.” He says that Sociolinguistics is a recognised part of most language or linguistic courses at university level. It has existed many years before 1960s and is recently noticed to shed more light on the nature…
    Tags: language
  • 75
     What is verbal hygiene? It is a thought–provoking term, used by Deborah Cameron describe how People respond to the 'urge to meddle in matters of language'. It covers a wide range of activities, from writing letters to Editors complaining about the 'deterioration' and 'abuse' of language, through prescriptions and proscriptions…
    Tags: language
  • 59
    Mixture of Varieties Code-switching He says that code-switching exist in a multilingual community where a speaker can choose to use a language that fits a particular circumstance or better understood by the hearer. A particular language can be for church, school, or work. He calls this situational code-switching. It is…
    Tags: language

What do Sociolinguists do? (Janet Holmes Sociolinguistics)

summary of Janet Holmes Sociolinguistics:

CHAPTER 1-What do Sociolinguists do?

Sociolinguistics: a term that refers to the study of the relationship between language and society, and how language is used in multilingual speech communities. Continue reading “What do Sociolinguists do? (Janet Holmes Sociolinguistics)”

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  • 56
    CHAPTER 3- Language maintenance and Shift Language shift: it happens when the language of the wider society (majority) displaces the minority mother tongue language over time in migrant communities or in communities under military occupation. Therefore when language shift occurs, it shifts most of the time towards the language of…
    Tags: language
  • 52
    Language Change * Variation and Change: the cause behind language change is the variation of use in the areas of pronunciation and vocabulary.  Post-vocal |r| its spread and its status: In many parts of England and Wales, Standard English has lost the pronunciation post-vocal r. The loss of r began…
    Tags: language, social, speech, status
  • 46
    Language and dialect Hudson tries to differentiate language from dialect but it turned out to be confusion as usual whether to consider it as a technical term or as untrained people see it. It could also be examined as part of a culture to make distinction between ‘languages’ and dialect’.…
    Tags: language, varieties
  • 44
    The social nature of speech Speech plays different roles in social interaction like people shifting furniture would say: To... go... now up a lot... and so on. It can influence ones action or thought. Speech is used to establish social relations-in relation to Malinowski’s “phatic communication” (an act only to…
    Tags: speech, social
  • 42
    Description of Sociolinguistic Hudson defines Sociolinguistics as “the study of language in relation to society.” He says that Sociolinguistics is a recognised part of most language or linguistic courses at university level. It has existed many years before 1960s and is recently noticed to shed more light on the nature…
    Tags: language

FUNCTIONAL CLASSIFICATION OF SENTENCE IN LITERARY ANALYSIS

FUNCTIONAL CLASSIFICATION OF SENTENCE

In linguistics sentence function refers to a speaker’s purpose in uttering a specific sentence, phrase, or clause whether a listener is present or not is sometimes irrelevant. Continue reading “FUNCTIONAL CLASSIFICATION OF SENTENCE IN LITERARY ANALYSIS”

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  • 38
    GRAMMATICAL LEVELS OF ANALYSIS In order to use language effectively and efficiently, we have to know the grammatical structures of the language and its meaning. We also have to know what forms of the language are appropriate for a given situation. Fowler (1979) observes that the grammar of language provides the…
    Tags: sentence, chira, sentences

GRAMMATICAL LEVELS OF ANALYSIS IN LITERARY CRITICISM

GRAMMATICAL LEVELS OF ANALYSIS

In order to use language effectively and efficiently, we have to know the grammatical structures of the language and its meaning. We also have to know what forms of the language are appropriate for a given situation Continue reading “GRAMMATICAL LEVELS OF ANALYSIS IN LITERARY CRITICISM”

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  • 38
    FUNCTIONAL CLASSIFICATION OF SENTENCE In linguistics sentence function refers to a speaker’s purpose in uttering a specific sentence, phrase, or clause whether a listener is present or not is sometimes irrelevant. It answers the question ‘why has this been said?’ the four basic sentence function include: the declarative, interrogative, exclamatory…
    Tags: sentence, sentences, chira
  • 38
    PROVERBS According to Wikipedia, a proverb (Latin: Proverbium) is a simple and concrete saying, popularly known and repeated, that expresses a truth based on common sense or the practical experience of humanity. Proverbs are often borrowed from similar languages and cultures, and sometimes come down to the present through more…
    Tags: structures, sentence

CONSIDER YOUR NARRATIVE TECHNIQUE IN TELLING YOUR STORY

NARRATIVE TECHNIQUE

A narrative technique is any of several methods the creator of a narrative uses to convey his message to his readers. It is a strategy used in making a narrative to relay information to the audience and, particularly, to ‘develop’ the narrative Continue reading “CONSIDER YOUR NARRATIVE TECHNIQUE IN TELLING YOUR STORY”

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LOAN WORDS (what they are and how the are used)

LOAN WORDS

According to Wikipedia, a loan word is a word adopted from one language (the donor language) and incorporated into a different, recipient language without translation. A loan word is distinguished from a claque, Continue reading “LOAN WORDS (what they are and how the are used)”

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Related Posts

  • 82
    CHAPTER 3- Language maintenance and Shift Language shift: it happens when the language of the wider society (majority) displaces the minority mother tongue language over time in migrant communities or in communities under military occupation. Therefore when language shift occurs, it shifts most of the time towards the language of…
    Tags: language
  • 58
    Description of Sociolinguistic Hudson defines Sociolinguistics as “the study of language in relation to society.” He says that Sociolinguistics is a recognised part of most language or linguistic courses at university level. It has existed many years before 1960s and is recently noticed to shed more light on the nature…
    Tags: language
  • 51
    Language and dialect Hudson tries to differentiate language from dialect but it turned out to be confusion as usual whether to consider it as a technical term or as untrained people see it. It could also be examined as part of a culture to make distinction between ‘languages’ and dialect’.…
    Tags: language
  • 47
    The Future of Most Nigerian Languages: on the way to extinction Languages go  into extinction for various reasons which may include dying of all the speakers of the language, domination of a more preferred language etc. Such languages are called endangered languages. This is not a new issue in language…
    Tags: language
  • 45
     What is verbal hygiene? It is a thought–provoking term, used by Deborah Cameron describe how People respond to the 'urge to meddle in matters of language'. It covers a wide range of activities, from writing letters to Editors complaining about the 'deterioration' and 'abuse' of language, through prescriptions and proscriptions…
    Tags: language

PROVERBS AND IDIOMS (definition and function)

PROVERBS

According to Wikipedia, a proverb (Latin: Proverbium) is a simple and concrete saying, popularly known and repeated, that expresses a truth based on common sense or the practical experience of humanity. Continue reading “PROVERBS AND IDIOMS (definition and function)”

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Related Posts

  • 41
    The Future of Most Nigerian Languages: on the way to extinction Languages go  into extinction for various reasons which may include dying of all the speakers of the language, domination of a more preferred language etc. Such languages are called endangered languages. This is not a new issue in language…
    Tags: language, languages, children
  • 38
    GRAMMATICAL LEVELS OF ANALYSIS In order to use language effectively and efficiently, we have to know the grammatical structures of the language and its meaning. We also have to know what forms of the language are appropriate for a given situation. Fowler (1979) observes that the grammar of language provides the…
    Tags: sentence, structures
  • 31
    CHAPTER 3- Language maintenance and Shift Language shift: it happens when the language of the wider society (majority) displaces the minority mother tongue language over time in migrant communities or in communities under military occupation. Therefore when language shift occurs, it shifts most of the time towards the language of…
    Tags: language
  • 30
    THE CONCEPT OF LANGUAGE Language serves as a channel through which ideas thoughts and emotions are expressed. It is the human ability to acquire and use complex systems of communication - a property of the community.  Language like any other concept has several definitions. This is of course, due to…
    Tags: language

Styles as a Choice (the author’s decision)

Styles as a Choice

            Choice is a very vital element of stylistics since it deals with the variation and options that are available to an author. Language provides its users with more than one choice in a given situation and genre, the writer chooses in expressing thoughts and opinions. Continue reading “Styles as a Choice (the author’s decision)”

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  • 62
    THE CONCEPT OF STYLE Style has been an object of study from ancient times. Aristotle, Cicero, Demetrius and Quintilian treated style as the proper adornment of thought. In this view, which prevailed throughout the Renaissance period, devices of style can be catalogued. The essayist or orator is expected to frame…
    Tags: style, language, writer, choice
  • 52
    CHAPTER 3- Language maintenance and Shift Language shift: it happens when the language of the wider society (majority) displaces the minority mother tongue language over time in migrant communities or in communities under military occupation. Therefore when language shift occurs, it shifts most of the time towards the language of…
    Tags: language
  • 44
    Language Change * Variation and Change: the cause behind language change is the variation of use in the areas of pronunciation and vocabulary.  Post-vocal |r| its spread and its status: In many parts of England and Wales, Standard English has lost the pronunciation post-vocal r. The loss of r began…
    Tags: language, style
  • 41
    Style as a Product of Context Although many people relate style to choice, some scholars maintain that style is not a matter of choice or deviation, rather it is the result of the milieu in which the author originates and the context in which the work is produced. The environment…
    Tags: style, language, choice
  • 39
    The Future of Most Nigerian Languages: on the way to extinction Languages go  into extinction for various reasons which may include dying of all the speakers of the language, domination of a more preferred language etc. Such languages are called endangered languages. This is not a new issue in language…
    Tags: language