Entries and exits
About entering and ending an interaction, Hudson explains that speech is structured, and it is composed of grammatical structures: sentences (short or long) like questions and answers. Greetings and farewells all offer the nearest example of structure in speech. The terms entry and exit are borrowed from stage use to note that discussions of speech norms often compare them with the lines that the actor recites on stage.
It shows that the relations between the participants in some piece of interaction are of great intents to the participants themselves. So they may end up in some farewell.
He explains that greeting and farewell exist in all languages but they vary in the sense that French aurevoir and English adieu all signify goodbye but they differ according to whether or not the people concerned expect to meet again.
The shared length of greeting is generally proportional to the length of time since the last meeting and to the importance of the relationship.
Discourse structure is a structure of speech above the sentence level (Schiffrin 1994). Structure of speech can be based on turns-taking at speaking. In studying the aspect of discourse one can ask whether ‘turns’ are taken strictly in sequence or they overlap one another; how do speakers show that they are about to finish and it is time for the other to speak.
Discourse may be based on topic and this type of structure is hierarchical in the sense that a given text should be analyzable into successive smaller units on the basis of topic.
Another type of discourse structure is known as encyclopedic structure. This type of discourse has a major topic and subtopics. Approach to discourse is through a more general viewpoint or visitors’ viewpoint. One could take the architects viewpoint and describe a flat like saying ‘there are four rooms, forming a square… or then you go down the corridor on your left…..
Verbal and non – verbal behavior
Hudson discusses the relations between verbal and non-verbal behaviours in social interaction. He identifies physical distance as an aspect of non-verbal behaviour. He explains an experiment that revealed that Arabs tend to get closer and possibly touch each other when they talk, but Americans keep some distance between them when they talk among themselves. Another kind of non-verbal behaviour is what people do with their face in literal sense. One uses smiling or eye contact to give out signals. Those signals are interesting and important because some of them seem to be universal.
Non-verbal behaviour also helps to mark the structure of the interaction, like the behaviour associated with ‘entries’ and’ exists.’ They may include handshaking, nose-rubbing (in some culture), kissing or embracing according to relation between the participants.
Nonverbal ones are noticed in turn-taking where a person speaking has a way of indicating that he is stopping so that the other can speak. This can happen by using the bowing of the head, raising ones hand etc.
In many cultures, the movement of the head is used to indicate ‘yes’ or ‘no’. This is done differently in different culture.
Male/Female Difference in Speech
Do male and female use speech differently or have different priorities and purposes in conversation? The answer is yes. Females tend to put more effort than man into keeping a conversation going by giving supportive feedback e.g. (yeah, when, and asking questions (McCormick 1994b).
Men and women show difference in their subject of discussion. The men tend to prefer using the pronoun ‘I’ while the women use more of ‘we’ and ‘you’. The men focus more on themselves than the women who tend to include the person addressed among the people discussed.
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