Hudson’s Sociolinguistics: The structure of speech

Entries and exits

About entering and ending an interaction, Hudson explains that speech is structured, and it is composed of grammatical structures: sentences (short or long) like questions and answers. Greetings and farewells all offer the nearest example of structure in speech. The terms entry and exit are borrowed from stage use to note that discussions of speech norms often compare them with the lines that the actor recites on stage.

It shows that the relations between the participants in some piece of interaction are of great intents to the participants themselves. So they may end up in some farewell.

He explains that greeting and farewell exist in all languages but they vary in the sense that French aurevoir and English adieu all signify goodbye but they differ according to whether or not the people concerned expect to meet again.

The shared length of greeting is generally proportional to the length of time since the last meeting and to the importance of the relationship.

Discourse structure is a structure of speech above the sentence level (Schiffrin 1994). Structure of speech can be based on turns-taking at speaking. In studying the aspect of discourse one can ask whether ‘turns’ are taken strictly in sequence or they overlap one another; how do speakers show that they are about to finish and it is time for the other to speak.

Discourse may be based on topic and this type of structure is hierarchical in the sense that a given text should be analyzable into successive smaller units on the basis of topic.

Another type of discourse structure is known as encyclopedic structure. This type of discourse has a major topic and subtopics. Approach to discourse is through a more general viewpoint or visitors’ viewpoint. One could take the architects viewpoint and describe a flat like saying ‘there are four rooms, forming a square… or then you go down the corridor on your left…..

Verbal and non – verbal behavior

Hudson discusses the relations between verbal and non-verbal behaviours in social interaction. He identifies physical distance as an aspect of non-verbal behaviour. He explains an experiment that revealed that Arabs tend to get closer and possibly touch each other when they talk, but Americans keep some distance between them when they talk among themselves. Another kind of non-verbal behaviour is what people do with their face in literal sense. One uses smiling or eye contact to give out signals. Those signals are interesting and important because some of them seem to be universal.

Non-verbal behaviour also helps to mark the structure of the interaction, like the behaviour associated with ‘entries’ and’ exists.’ They may include handshaking, nose-rubbing (in some culture), kissing or embracing according to relation between the participants.

Nonverbal ones are noticed in turn-taking where a person speaking has a way of indicating that he is stopping so that the other can speak. This can happen by using the bowing of the head, raising ones hand etc.

In many cultures, the movement of the head is used to indicate ‘yes’ or ‘no’. This is done differently in different culture.

Male/Female Difference in Speech

Do male and female use speech differently or have different priorities and purposes in conversation? The answer is yes. Females tend to put more effort than man into keeping a conversation going by giving supportive feedback e.g. (yeah, when, and asking questions (McCormick 1994b).

Men and women show difference in their subject of discussion. The men tend to prefer using the pronoun ‘I’ while the women use more of ‘we’ and ‘you’. The men focus more on themselves than the women who tend to include the person addressed among the people discussed.

 

2,925 total views, 45 views today

Related Posts

167 thoughts on “Hudson’s Sociolinguistics: The structure of speech

  1. Have you ever thought about adding a little bit more than just your articles? I mean, what you say is important and all. Nevertheless imagine if you added some great visuals or video clips to give your posts more, “pop”! Your content is excellent but with images and videos, this blog could undeniably be one of the very best in its field. Great blog!
    oakley bucket prezzo http://www.studiocarlocaprioglio.it/js/index.php?oakley-bucket-prezzo-02500937

  2. Woah! I’m really loving the template/theme of this website. It’s simple, yet effective. A lot of times it’s hard to get that “perfect balance” between user friendliness and appearance. I must say you have done a fantastic job with this. In addition, the blog loads super quick for me on Chrome. Excellent Blog!
    lunette oakley new look voucher http://www.erressesnc.it/img/index.php?lunette-oakley-new-look-voucher-14001105

  3. Hey there! I know this is kinda off topic but I’d figured I’d ask. Would you be interested in trading links or maybe guest writing a blog post or vice-versa? My website discusses a lot of the same subjects as yours and I believe we could greatly benefit from each other. If you’re interested feel free to shoot me an email. I look forward to hearing from you! Superb blog by the way!
    chandal nike mujer http://www.ristorazioneilgirasole.it/js/index.php?chandal-nike-mujer-25500157

  4. First of all I would like to say superb blog! I had a quick question in which I’d like to ask if you do not mind. I was curious to find out how you center yourself and clear your head before writing. I’ve had a hard time clearing my mind in getting my ideas out there. I do take pleasure in writing however it just seems like the first 10 to 15 minutes are generally lost just trying to figure out how to begin. Any suggestions or hints? Kudos!
    ray ban groningen jeugd http://www.stillarredo.it/menu/index.php?ray-ban-groningen-jeugd-49500579

  5. Today, I went to the beach with my kids. I found a sea shell and gave it to my 4 year old daughter and said “You can hear the ocean if you put this to your ear.” She put the shell to her ear and screamed. There was a hermit crab inside and it pinched her ear. She never wants to go back! LoL I know this is entirely off topic but I had to tell someone!
    oakley frogskins lenti viola http://www.affittacamerecavallobianco.it/img/index.php?oakley-frogskins-lenti-viola-02501339

  6. When I initially commented I seem to have clicked on the -Notify me when new comments are added- checkbox and now every time a comment is added I receive 4 emails with the same comment. There has to be a means you can remove me from that service? Thanks a lot!
    nike air max femme rose fluo http://www.leforumdubowling.fr

  7. I just want to say I’m all new to blogs and definitely savored your web page. Probably I’m going to bookmark your blog . You amazingly come with tremendous articles. Thanks for sharing with us your web page.

  8. I just want to tell you that I’m beginner to blogging and site-building and certainly liked your page. Very likely I’m planning to bookmark your website . You really come with beneficial articles. Bless you for revealing your blog.

  9. I simply want to tell you that I am just all new to blogging and really loved this web-site. Very likely I’m likely to bookmark your website . You really come with fabulous stories. Kudos for revealing your blog site.

  10. I am just commenting to let you know of the perfect experience my wife’s princess encountered studying your web site. She picked up numerous details, most notably what it’s like to have an ideal helping character to have many more very easily gain knowledge of selected advanced subject matter. You undoubtedly exceeded our own expectations. Thanks for offering such effective, healthy, explanatory and in addition fun thoughts on this topic to Gloria.

  11. Importante entidad de salud requiere profesional en carreras administrativas con experiencia mínima de 2 años en administración y verificación la facturación de los servicios de consulta externa en los procesos ambulatorios, con conocimientos en normatividad vigente, manejo de personal. Importante empresa del sector salud requiere Técnico en contabilidad y/ carreras administrativas con experiencia mínima de 2 años en recaudo de cheque y/ efectivo, elaboración de recibos de caja, abonos, verificación del valor de los copagos.

  12. En el caso de los electrodomésticos antiguos, el nivel de peligro de avería es mucho mayor, además de disponer de una larga lista de problemas que con el paso del tiempo se van haciendo más evidentes y continuados, recomendando la revisión periódica de su frigorífico. Aunque los nuevos frigoríficos puedan sufrir con el tiempo pequeñas averías, al disponer de garantía y tener una durabilidad mucho más alta debido a sus materiales de construcción son mucho menos comunes y mucho más fáciles de reparar que las averías en los frigoríficos más antiguos. Asegúrese de que la puerta no se ha dejado abierta si la señal de advertencia suena en los frigorificos Bosch con problemas.

  13. Very nice info and straight to the point. I don’t know if this is really the best place to ask but do you folks have any thoughts on where to get some professional writers? Thank you 🙂

  14. This is very interesting, You’re a very skilled blogger. I’ve joined your rss feed and look forward to seeking more of your fantastic post. Also, I have shared your site in my social networks!

  15. Whats Happening i am new to this, I stumbled upon this I’ve found It absolutely helpful and it has helped me out loads. I hope to give a contribution & assist other customers like its helped me. Good job.

  16. you are actually a excellent webmaster. The web site loading pace is amazing. It sort of feels that you are doing any unique trick. In addition, The contents are masterwork. you have performed a fantastic activity in this topic!

  17. I like the valuable information you provide in your articles. I’ll bookmark your blog and check again here frequently. I’m quite sure I will learn plenty of new stuff right here! Best of luck for the next!

  18. I think this is one of the most important information for me. And i am glad reading your article. But want to remark on few general things, The web site style is perfect, the articles is really nice : D. Good job, cheers

  19. Heya i am for the first time here. I found this board and I find It really useful & it helped me out much. I hope to give something back and help others like you helped me.

  20. I’ll right away take hold of your rss feed as I can not to find your email subscription hyperlink or newsletter service. Do you have any? Please permit me recognize in order that I could subscribe. Thanks.

  21. Thanks for the sensible critique. Me & my neighbor were just preparing to do a little research on this. We got a grab a book from our area library but I think I learned more clear from this post. I am very glad to see such excellent information being shared freely out there.

  22. I simply could not leave your website before suggesting that I actually enjoyed the standard information a person supply for your visitors? Is gonna be back incessantly in order to check out new posts

  23. It’s perfect time to make some plans for the future and it’s time to be happy. I’ve read this post and if I could I wish to suggest you some interesting things or suggestions. Maybe you could write next articles referring to this article. I wish to read even more things about it!

  24. My husband and i have been comfortable when John could finish off his preliminary research through your precious recommendations he came across through the weblog. It is now and again perplexing to just happen to be giving freely ideas which often others have been selling. And we grasp we now have the blog owner to be grateful to for this. Those explanations you have made, the straightforward site navigation, the relationships you can make it easier to instill – it’s got mostly astounding, and it’s really helping our son in addition to us believe that this article is exciting, which is wonderfully essential. Thank you for all!

  25. You could definitely see your expertise within the work you write. The arena hopes for more passionate writers such as you who aren’t afraid to say how they believe. All the time follow your heart. “There are only two industries that refer to their customers as users.” by Edward Tufte.

  26. My brother suggested I might like this web site. He was entirely right. This post truly made my day. You can not imagine just how much time I had spent for this information! Thanks!

  27. I like this web blog very much, Its a rattling nice situation to read and obtain info . “Philosophy is a battle against the bewitchment of our intelligence by means of language.” by Ludwig Wittgenstein.

  28. I think this is one of the most significant info for me. And i am glad reading your article. But wanna remark on few general things, The site style is perfect, the articles is really excellent : D. Good job, cheers

  29. Its like you read my mind! You appear to know a lot about this, like you wrote the book in it or something. I think that you could do with some pics to drive the message home a bit, but other than that, this is magnificent blog. A great read. I will definitely be back.

  30. What i do not realize is if truth be told how you’re now not really a lot more well-appreciated than you might be right now. You’re so intelligent. You understand thus significantly in the case of this topic, made me for my part believe it from so many varied angles. Its like women and men are not fascinated unless it is one thing to accomplish with Woman gaga! Your personal stuffs excellent. All the time take care of it up!

  31. I do consider all of the ideas you’ve offered on your post. They’re really convincing and will definitely work. Nonetheless, the posts are very quick for novices. May just you please prolong them a bit from next time? Thank you for the post.

  32. I’ve been browsing online more than three hours today, yet I never found any interesting article like yours. It is pretty worth enough for me. In my opinion, if all webmasters and bloggers made good content as you did, the internet will be much more useful than ever before.

  33. I like the valuable info you provide in your articles. I’ll bookmark your weblog and check again here regularly. I’m quite certain I will learn many new stuff right here! Good luck for the next!

  34. naturally like your web site but you have to take a look at the spelling on quite a few of your posts. Several of them are rife with spelling problems and I in finding it very bothersome to tell the truth nevertheless I¡¦ll definitely come back again.

  35. Whats Happening i’m new to this, I stumbled upon this I’ve found It positively helpful and it has aided me out loads. I’m hoping to give a contribution & assist other customers like its helped me. Good job.

  36. It’s appropriate day to have some preparations for the possible future. I have scan this article and if I have the ability to, I wish to propose you few important instruction.

  37. I was very pleased to find this web site. I need to to thank you for your time for this wonderful read!! I definitely enjoyed every part of it and I have you saved to fav to look at new stuff in your website.

  38. It happens to be right opportunity to create some options for the upcoming. I have read through this posting and if I could, I desire to recommend you couple insightful advice.

  39. I simply need to share it with you that I am new to having a blog and totally valued your site. More than likely I am most likely to bookmark your blog post . You indeed have impressive article material. Appreciate it for telling with us your own internet site webpage

  40. Between me and my husband we’ve owned more MP3 players over the years than I can count, including Sansas, iRivers, iPods (classic & touch), the Ibiza Rhapsody, etc. But, the last few years I’ve settled down to one line of players. Why? Because I was happy to discover how well-designed and fun to use the underappreciated (and widely mocked) Zunes are.

  41. I¡¦m now not sure the place you’re getting your information, but good topic. I needs to spend some time learning more or working out more. Thank you for excellent info I used to be searching for this information for my mission.

  42. I merely hope to share it with you that I am new to blog posting and incredibly enjoyed your website. Most likely I am likely to store your blog post . You really have stunning article materials. Truly Appreciate it for discussing with us your favorite domain document

  43. I was extremely pleased to uncover this page. I want to to thank you for your time just for this fantastic read!! I definitely really liked every bit of it and i also have you saved to fav to see new things on your web site.

  44. Good morning there, just turned out to be receptive to your web page through Yahoo and bing, and found that it’s quite good. I will be grateful for if you keep up this approach.

  45. It’s actually practically extremely difficult to see well-educated men and women on this content, however you look like you realize exactly what you’re writing on! Thanks A Lot

  46. It really is appropriate occasion to prepare some desires for the long-term. I’ve study this document and if I have the ability to, I want to encourage you some significant recommendations.

  47. I’m so happy to read this. This is the kind of manual that needs to be given and not the random misinformation that is at the other blogs. Appreciate your sharing this greatest doc.

  48. I just could not go away your website before suggesting that I actually enjoyed the standard information an individual supply on your guests? Is gonna be back regularly to investigate cross-check new posts

  49. Excellent read, I just passed this onto a colleague who was doing some research on that. And he actually bought me lunch as I found it for him smile Thus let me rephrase that: Thanks for lunch!

  50. Its like you read my mind! You seem to know a lot about this, like you wrote the book in it or something. I think that you can do with a few pics to drive the message home a little bit, but other than that, this is wonderful blog. An excellent read. I will definitely be back.

  51. I’m very pleased to uncover this site. I want to to thank you for ones time for this fantastic read!! I definitely appreciated every bit of it and I have you book-marked to see new things in your website.

  52. This is the best time to generate some goals for the future. I have browsed this write-up and if I can, I desire to propose you couple of intriguing advice.

  53. My brother recommended I might like this website. He was totally right. This post truly made my day. You cann’t imagine simply how much time I had spent for this info! Thanks!

  54. I was suggested this blog by my cousin. I’m not sure whether this post is written by him as nobody else know such detailed about my problem. You are incredible! Thanks!

  55. Hello here, just turned out to be aware about your blog page through Search engines like google, and found that it’s really beneficial. I’ll take pleasure in in the event you retain this.

  56. Hello here, just turned out to be familiar with your web page through Search engines like google, and found that it’s truly informational. I’ll truly appreciate in the event you retain this.

  57. I merely desire to inform you that I am new to having a blog and totally adored your report. More than likely I am prone to save your blog post . You simply have superb article blog posts. Be Grateful For it for swapping with us your current blog page

  58. hello!,I like your writing so a lot! proportion we keep in touch extra approximately your article on AOL? I require an expert on this area to solve my problem. May be that’s you! Taking a look forward to look you.

  59. Thanks for another wonderful post. The place else could anybody get that kind of information in such a perfect means of writing? I have a presentation subsequent week, and I am at the look for such information.

  60. I’m pretty pleased to uncover this page. I need to to thank you for ones time due to this wonderful read!! I definitely liked every little bit of it and i also have you bookmarked to check out new information on your blog.

  61. I simply intend to advise you that I am new to blog posting and completely admired your site. Most likely I am likely to bookmark your blog post . You definitely have superb article content. Value it for share-out with us the best website document

  62. I’m excited to find this website. I wanted to thank you for ones time for this fantastic read!! I definitely appreciated every bit of it and I have you saved to fav to check out new stuff on your blog.

  63. Varick Street Litho is one of the top printing companies in NYC to provide the best digital printing in New York. Their printing services in NYC adopts state of the art digital printing services and offset digital printing for products postcards, business cards, catalogs, brochures, stickers, flyers, large format posters, banners and more for business in NYC. For more information on their digital printing nyc, visit http://www.vslprint.com/ or http://www.vslprint.com/printing 121 Varick Street, 3rd Floor, New York, NY 10013. Or contact +1 646 843 0800

  64. I was very happy to uncover this site. I want to to thank you for ones time for this particularly fantastic read!! I definitely enjoyed every little bit of it and I have you bookmarked to see new stuff in your site.

  65. I’m very happy to uncover this great site. I wanted to thank you for ones time for this fantastic read!! I definitely enjoyed every bit of it and i also have you book-marked to check out new information on your site.

  66. Great post. I was checking continuously this blog and I’m impressed! Very useful info specially the last part 🙂 I care for such info a lot. I was seeking this particular info for a long time. Thank you and good luck.

  67. I am not certain where you’re getting your information, but good topic. I needs to spend some time finding out much more or understanding more. Thank you for great info I was searching for this info for my mission.

  68. I would like to thank you for the efforts you’ve put in writing this website. I am hoping the same high-grade web site post from you in the upcoming also. Actually your creative writing abilities has inspired me to get my own site now. Actually the blogging is spreading its wings rapidly. Your write up is a good example of it.

  69. This is most suitable occasion to produce some preparations for the long-term. I have go through this document and if I have the ability to, I want to suggest you some great proposal.

  70. I¡¦ve been exploring for a little bit for any high-quality articles or weblog posts on this sort of space . Exploring in Yahoo I ultimately stumbled upon this web site. Studying this info So i am happy to express that I have an incredibly good uncanny feeling I discovered exactly what I needed. I so much unquestionably will make sure to do not forget this site and give it a glance on a continuing basis.

  71. Simply desire to say your article is as astonishing. The clarity in your post is simply excellent and i could assume you’re an expert on this subject. Fine with your permission allow me to grab your RSS feed to keep up to date with forthcoming post. Thanks a million and please carry on the enjoyable work.

  72. Hi There! We are looking for experienced people that are interested in from working their home on a full-time basis. If you want to earn $500 a day, and you don’t mind developing some short opinions up, this might be perfect opportunity for you! Simply click the link here NOW!

  73. I think this is among the most significant information for me. And i’m glad reading your article. But wanna remark on few general things, The website style is wonderful, the articles is really excellent : D. Good job, cheers

  74. Thank you for the sensible critique. Me & my neighbor were just preparing to do a little research on this. We got a grab a book from our local library but I think I learned more from this post. I’m very glad to see such magnificent info being shared freely out there.

  75. Good site! I really love how it is simple on my eyes and the data are well written. I am wondering how I might be notified when a new post has been made. I’ve subscribed to your feed which must do the trick! Have a great day!

  76. wh0cd857957 [url=http://clindamycin2017.top/]clindamycin[/url] [url=http://buyampicillin2016.top/]ampicillin 500mg capsules[/url] [url=http://stromectol-4.gdn/]stromectol[/url] [url=http://levitra-0.top/]levitra[/url] [url=http://buyelocon9.top/]elocon topical cream[/url] [url=http://ampicillin2011.top/]ampicillin[/url] [url=http://buycipro5.top/]cipro[/url] [url=http://avana10.gdn/]generic avana[/url]

  77. Brainstorm your thesis statement . A thesis statement will convey to your reader the points or arguments you may be going to make within your paper. It acts a road map for your personal paper and should answer the question, “What is this paper about?” It should take a stand and announce your position towards the topic. [4]
    For example, you may brainstorm the Longfellow quote/question by thinking of personal examples of heroes who are remembered or forgotten, these as family members, friends, teachers, or peers who have acted as heroes to you or to others. Otherwise you may focus over a historical figure who would seem to be a forgotten hero or a decorated hero.
    This essay question is asking for two sides within the discussion, the forgotten hero together with the remembered hero. Your thesis should discuss both of those sides and choose 1 side to argue for or against.
    You may choose to spotlight a historical figure who encountered opposition and challenges in her life, these types of as being the suffragette Susan B. Anthony. Anthony worked tirelessly for decades to get the government to recognize women’s right to vote, and was often derided by the government and by individuals within just her very own organization. She is actually a smart example of the hero who was not recognized as a trailblazer until late in her life, though she is now remembered as a heroine in history. Try to refer back again to the quotation while in the essay prompt in the thesis, if workable, to demonstrate you have look over the entire question.
    A achievable thesis statement could be: “Though Longfellow argues that names, or heroes, may be forgotten over time, one particular historical figure, Susan B. Anthony, was derided in her lifetime for her beliefs but is now remembered as a heroine of her time.”
    pay for essays

  78. Whats up! I simply want to give a huge thumbs up for the good information you’ve here on this post. I will likely be coming again to your forum for extra soon. [url=http://83f7kydr.tumblr.com/]Underdue[/url]

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published.